I used Google Translate for this, with the expected idiosyncracies and weird results. Part 1 is about the Bolsheviks as pogromists and Part 2 is about the pogromists led by Symon Vasylyovych Petliura. Wikipedia says about him: He became the Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Army and the President of the Ukrainian People’s Republic during Ukraine’s short-lived sovereignty in 1918–1921, leading Ukraine’s struggle for independence following the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917.).
Pogroms in Ukraine, in Belarus and in European Russia…1918-1922
The Russian Academy of Sciences
INSTITUTE OF SLAVIC STUDIES
STATE ARCHIVE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Collection of doI<lj.m.en.mo8
Responsible editor Milyakava L.B.
Responsible compilers: Zyuzina I.D., MILYAKQVA L.B. with the participation of Sereda T. (Ukraine, European part of Russia). Rosenblat E.e, Elenekoy I.a. (Belarus) Moscow ROSSPEN 2007
[…J’ GA RF. F. R-1339. Op. 1. D. 426. L. 19-23. Copy. NQ 89 Report of an employee of the Editorial Colleague H. Hoffmann on the pogroms in m. Fastov, Kiev province. in August-September 1919.
1. Bolsheviks. The Jewish population of Fastov, Kiev Gubernia. has up to 8 thousand souls. Most Jews are merchants; a significant part are artisans and only a small number are hired workers. Fastov has always been considered a rich place, and indeed it should be noted that the Jews did not fare badly here. Relations between the Jews and the Christian population were not bad. Pogrom mood here never was not noticeable. In the years of 1918-1919, when a wave of pogroms flooded the whole of Ukraine, in Fastov itself (excluding stations where they robbed, beat and killed passing Jews) was calm. After the occupation of Fastov by the Bolsheviks, Jews here, as elsewhere, are quite a few suffered from the Bolshevik regime. The entire indemnity imposed was paid almost entirely by the Jews, despite the fact that they are poorer and far fewer than the Christians. Many Jews were held hostage, they spent a long time in prison, many had to leave Fastov altogether. When the forces of the Bolsheviks at the front began to weaken, the Jews had hope for a speedy deliverance from them, but at the same time, the fear of a pogrom did not give rest. The fact is that there was no certainty that the volunteers, whom they thought that they did not make thunders (sic), Fastov’s aimut (sic) before Petlura: they were still too far from Fastov. To Petlura, who is getting closer and moved closer to Fastov, the Jews definitely looked on him as a pogromist, and everyone believed that if the Bolsheviks left and Petliura entered, the pogrom inevitable. The Jews saw their only salvation in the arrival of volunteers. Fearing a pogrom, the Jewish population only wanted the Bolsheviks to hold out until the arrival of the Volunteer Army, so that the Petliura troops would not enter the city before the volunteers.
2. The first Petliura units – the Galicians – entered the city. During the first day they committed several robberies. Tomorrow the power has arrived. The Jewish delegation, which introduced itself to the Ukrainian who was here • The part of the text concerning the September Pom in Fastiv has been omitted. More about see doc. 1’@ 89. 244 to the Minister of the Interior, the latter declared that there was nothing to be afraid of the pogrom, since the authorities would not allow this. Meanwhile, he said that all the past the pogroms have sufficiently tarnished the name of the Ukrainian government. It could to occur only when the authorities were powerless to fight this phenomenon; now the authorities have enough means to prevent pogroms. Tomorrow, when an attempt was made by some of the soldiers to pogrom, two of them were, according to General Krause l48 (Galician), were shot, and this measure restrained the rest. There were no more outbursts. True, there were cases when Jews were detained on the street and forced and clean the station, adding at the same time: “The Jews have polluted, they must clean it)).” There were some other minor cases, such as the exchange of clothes, shoes: the best was taken from the Jews in exchange for the bad. But this soon stopped, and life more or less improved. The free trade, and the place came to life. But this revival was purely external, so how inside the Jewish population felt restless for two reasons: firstly, they did not believe the Petliurists: after all the pogroms perpetrated by them, no one was sure that now that would not happen same in Fastov. 80 second, there was also no certainty that the authorities this one will last a long time. And the Jewish population was impatiently waiting for the end, and the saving end was seen in the volunteers who would come and immediately bring order and peace.” The Ukrainians spent two weeks in Fastiv. 8 during this time became it is known that the rumors about the contact between Petliura and the volunteers are not true, that the Ukrainians were forced out of Kyiv, and that the volunteers were going to Fastov…Volunteers (Ist PO’1l0M) on Sunday, August 25…Volunteers occupied Fastov. Immediately after entry began attacks and robberies. The Jews, who hoped for a completely different attitude on their part, were sure that these were only separate excesses that will stop with the establishment of power in the city. For breakfast In the morning, it became known that there was a head of the garrison, Belogortsev I49, and a temporary commandant, Pakhomov, was appointed. This latter was asked to take measures to protect the Jewish population from violence and plunder. The commandant said that it was difficult to immediately stop the excesses, since the army very embittered against the Jews. Having received 25 thousand rubles. he promised all the same measures except for peace. Despite the commandant’s promise to take action, the pogrom grew. In the evening they usually gathered all the Cossacks, regular and partisans especially, in faith. After checking and praying, they scattered in groups around the city “to work”. ((Work)) was carried out openly and confidently. Not hiding behind the motives of “search)), they simply planted the door with their butt and broke into Jewish houses shouting: “Jew, give me money, otherwise we will let’s hang it now.” At the same time, they kept the rope they had brought with them. It is clear that almost every Jew had a pre-arranged amount, to pay off in the event of an attack. But the bandits were not satisfied with this. Taking the prepared amount, they beat the victim with ramrods, forcing to give hidden or buried money. As soon as they began to pray and assure them that there was no more money, they threw a noose on neck and dragged their victim to a beam or hook. Where there were still some money or jewelry, this measure, of course, worked, and everything was given to the bandits. 245 There were many cases when they hung up 2-3 times. For example, Feldman was subjected to three suspensions. Everything he has was, he gave to his tormentors. They kept him in the loop until he turned blue. Convinced that he really has nothing else, they let him go. Even during this first pogrom, many women were subjected to rape. There were frequent cases when, without being allowed into the house, bandits fired at the front door. Such a case occurred with the famous Pashkov, once accused of ritual murder. When he refused open the door, the attackers started shooting at it, and Pashkov himself was he was killed by shots. Bursting into the house, they wounded the wife of the murdered man and child. Each group took all the loot to its headquarters. As it was mentioned, there were two detachments in the city: regular and partisan. The partisans were especially distinguished by their “work”. They had a specially designated a room where a lot of stolen things and money were carried every night. Here, under the supervision of an officer, the booty was divided equally. The same thing happened at the headquarters of the regular troops. August 27…Public Rabbi Kligman received a written invitation to appear before the temporary commandant Pakhomov (a copy of this document is attached here).